Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Testing of the Prototype Model of the Proposed End Effector Design - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 15 Words: 4630 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Chapter Seven Testing of the Prototype Model of the Proposed End Effector Design 7.1 Introduction The performance of the proposed Dolly Baseboard assembly operation needs to be monitored and analyzed in order to minimize failure. As baseboard and dolly are supplied from different mould cavity in Clipsal, it is important to know the parameters such as the mould cavity number where the parts are made from or inserting speed, that might affect the consistence and cycle time of the assembly process, and to be able to vary or discard them so as to achieve the desired performance of the assembly process. The approach used in this project is an experimental technique known as Design of Experiment (DOE). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Testing of the Prototype Model of the Proposed End Effector Design" essay for you Create order DeVor, Tsong John (1992) has defined DOE as a statistical tool used in quality design and improvement. The purpose of DOE is to experiment with various combinations of parameters for the purpose of identifying the particular combinations that optimize certain design criteria or performance measures. 7.2 Mathematical representation of DOE In DOE, only the final outcomes obtained by a combination of different variables are of interest. This outcome is usually known as response, which is the performance of the dolly baseboard assembly process in this project. DeVor, Tsong John (1992) states that the response can be represented mathematically by the equation as illustrated in equation 7.1. Assuming that a system involving a mean response that is dependent on input variables x1, x2, . . . , xn. Then could be expressed as This mean that the mean response can be expressed as function with independent variables x1, x2, . . . , xn and a set of parameters 1, 2, . . . , k. The data collected during the experiment are represented by the equation as illustrated in equation 7.2. 7.2.1 Classification of variables by transfer function model The performance of a system can be described by a transfer function model as shown in 7.1. The transfer function illustrates the relationship between the inputs, defined control factors and the output of the process in the presence of noise. According to Taguchis Methods, the factors that can affect the output performance or quality can be classified into mainly four categories which are shown in Table 7.1. Table 7.1 Types of factors in an experiment S/No. Types of Factors Description 1. Signal factors These are factors that may be adjusted by user to attain target performance. 2. Control factors These are the process parameters whose values can be determined during design process. 3. Noise factors They are uncontrollable factors or controllable factors that do not want to control for the purpose of an experiment. 4. Scaling/Leveling factors Special case of control factors that may be easily adjusted to achieve a desired functional relationship between a signal factor and output response. (Source: DeVor, Tsong John, 1992) 7.3 Factors selection in the Dolly Baseboard assembly process One of the most important steps in designing an experiment for Dolly Baseboard assembly process is to select the appropriate factors to study. Basically, there are two groups of factors: The first is the experimental or input factors, those that can be manipulating and are also called the independent variables. The second is the response factors that are measured and are also called the dependent variables. 7.3.1 Input factors and their levels According to Pareto principle, there should be hundreds of factors to choose from, but only a vital few that really make significant changes to the response. It is crucial to identify these input variables and decide on their importance on the quality of output. The input factors and their levels that will have real effects on the performance of the assembly process are presented in Table 7.2. Table 7.2 Type of the input factors used in DOE S/No. Input Factors Description A Baseboard geometry with (Four Levels) Baseboard and dolly are made from different type of injection moulding machines in Clipsal, any geometrical variation might affect the performance of the assembly process, for example; if the geometry of dolly tends to be smaller and baseboard tends to be bigger, the assembly process will become harder. The dolly and baseboard can be selected from four different type of mould cavity to be used in DOE B Dolly geometry with (Four Levels) C Assembling speed with (Three Levels) This is the speed where dolly and baseboard are assembled together. The selection of this speed affects not only the performance of the assembly process, but also the assembly cycle time The setting of these three different speeds can be achieved using teach pendent of jointed-armed robot 7.3.2 Response factor It is also known as output factor, in this case, is to measure the performance of the assembly process. Taguchi mentioned that when selecting the response factors for their practicality, they should be hard, variable-scale factors (1-10) where possible. Thus, factors such as volts, shrinkage, size, and defect count make good response factors. The percent yield is an example of a poor response variable as it does not tell the quality of the rejected material. In this DOE, the performance of the assembly process is measured on a (0 to 2 variable-scale) factor which is explained as below: 0 It indicates poor assembly process; no dollies are assembled to baseboard. 1 It indicates fair assembly process; only one dolly is assembled to baseboard. 2 It indicates excellent assembly process; two dollies are assembled to baseboard 7.4 Design of three factors full factorial experiments The experimental design required is a fixed effect model of three factor full factorial designs. DeVor, Tsong John (1992) defined fixed effect model of factorial design as the levels specifically chosen by the experimenter. In hypothesis testing about level means, the conclusions will apply only to the factor level considered in the analysis. The three variables used in the experiment are assembling speed, baseboard and dolly geometry. The level condition of these variables is listed in Table 7.3 and it is noted that the levels of the assembling speed is in ascending order but not for the dolly and baseboard geometry which cannot be controlled that they might be the same or randomly different throughout the experiment. However, this is not important as it will not affect the final conclusion of the experiment. In order to adopt a standard notation, the variables are coded as A, B, and C with level coded as a, b and c and the possible test conditions will be 4 x 4 x 3 = 48. These are illustrated in Table 7.4. Table 7.3 Variable setting to determine the performance of assembly process Variables Unit Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Baseboard geometry (A) Cavity no.7 Cavity no.8 Cavity no.9 Cavity no.10 Dolly geometry (B) Cavity no.2 Cavity no.3 Cavity no.4 Cavity no.5 Assembling speed (C) mm/s 5 (Slow) 10 (Medium) 15 (Fast) Table 7.4 Coded and actual test conditions in standard order Coded Test Conditions Actual Test Conditions Test no. A B C Baseboard Geometry Dolly Geometry Assembling Speed (mm/s) 1 a1 b1 c1 Cavity no. 7 Cavity no. 2 5 2 a2 b1 c1 Cavity no. 8 Cavity no. 2 5 3 a3 b1 c1 Cavity no. 9 Cavity no. 2 5 4 a4 b1 c1 Cavity no. 10 Cavity no. 2 5 5 a1 b2 c1 Cavity no. 7 Cavity no. 3 5 6 a2 b2 c1 Cavity no. 8 Cavity no. 3 5 7 a3 b2 c1 Cavity no. 9 Cavity no. 3 5 8 a4 b2 c1 Cavity no. 10 Cavity no. 3 5 9 a1 b3 c1 Cavity no. 7 Cavity no. 4 5 10 a2 b3 c1 Cavity no. 8 Cavity no. 4 5 11 a3 b3 c1 Cavity no. 9 Cavity no. 4 5 12 a4 b3 c1 Cavity no. 10 Cavity no. 4 5 13 a1 b4 c1 Cavity no. 7 Cavity no. 5 5 14 a2 b4 c1 Cavity no. 8 Cavity no. 5 5 15 a3 b4 c1 Cavity no. 9 Cavity no. 5 5 16 a4 b4 c1 Cavity no. 10 Cavity no. 5 5 17 a1 b1 c2 Cavity no. 7 Cavity no. 2 10 18 a2 b1 c2 Cavity no. 8 Cavity no. 2 10 19 a3 b1 c2 Cavity no. 9 Cavity no. 2 10 20 a4 b1 c2 Cavity no. 10 Cavity no. 2 10 21 a1 b2 c2 Cavity no. 7 Cavity no. 3 10 22 a2 b2 c2 Cavity no. 8 Cavity no. 3 10 23 a3 b2 c2 Cavity no. 9 Cavity no. 3 10 24 a4 b2 c2 Cavity no. 10 Cavity no. 3 10 25 a1 b3 c2 Cavity no. 7 Cavity no. 4 10 26 a2 b3 c2 Cavity no. 8 Cavity no. 4 10 27 a3 b3 c2 Cavity no. 9 Cavity no. 4 10 28 a4 b3 c2 Cavity no. 10 Cavity no. 4 10 29 a1 b4 c2 Cavity no. 7 Cavity no. 5 10 30 a2 b4 c2 Cavity no. 8 Cavity no. 5 10 31 a3 b4 c2 Cavity no. 9 Cavity no. 5 10 32 a4 b4 c2 Cavity no. 10 Cavity no. 5 10 33 a1 b1 c3 Cavity no. 7 Cavity no. 2 15 34 a2 b1 c3 Cavity no. 8 Cavity no. 2 15 35 a3 b1 c3 Cavity no. 9 Cavity no. 2 15 36 a4 b1 c3 Cavity no. 10 Cavity no. 2 15 37 a1 b2 c3 Cavity no. 7 Cavity no. 3 15 38 a2 b2 c3 Cavity no. 8 Cavity no. 3 15 39 a3 b2 c3 Cavity no. 9 Cavity no. 3 15 40 a4 b2 c3 Cavity no. 10 Cavity no. 3 15 41 a1 b3 c3 Cavity no. 7 Cavity no. 4 15 42 a2 b3 c3 Cavity no. 8 Cavity no. 4 15 43 a3 b3 c3 Cavity no. 9 Cavity no. 4 15 44 a4 b3 c3 Cavity no. 10 Cavity no. 4 15 45 a1 b4 c3 Cavity no. 7 Cavity no. 5 15 46 a2 b4 c3 Cavity no. 8 Cavity no. 5 15 47 a3 b4 c3 Cavity no. 9 Cavity no. 5 15 48 a4 b4 c3 Cavity no. 10 Cavity no. 5 15 7.5 Method of data collection The data collection process begins by randomly selecting the test condition to be conducted. Each of the test condition is replicated 10 times and the mean average yijk is calculated. The total expected number of replicate is 48 x 10 = 480 and the estimated hours required is about 12 hours. In order to maximize the accuracy of the experiment, the test was accomplished in one full day and the same program was used throughout the entire testing, except for the three different assembling speeds mentioned earlier. Due to the insufficient parts supplied from Clipsal, dolly and baseboard must be used repeatedly. Finally, after counting all the available number of parts for the experiment, it was found that dolly and baseboard, which are made of plastics material, could be replaced with a new one in every 5 replications to avoid any inaccuracy to the final conclusion due to excessive bending. 7.2 shows the arranged baseboards and dollies that are ready for the test and a sample of the exper imental result is illustrated in 7.3. The experimental data for test 1 to 48 can be found in Appendix G. Before proceeding to the tests, it is important to make some assumptions to the experiment and they are discussed as below: a. The baseboard and fixture are secure enough to withstand the force exerted by the end effector during the assembly process. It means that their positions are fixed throughout the experiment. b. The area where baseboard is placed in the fixture, and dolly is attached to the end effector are dimensional controlled and should be constant throughout the experiment. It means that if baseboard and dolly geometry do not vary, they should be always at the same assembling position. c. The repeatability and accuracy of the motor in jointed-arm robot are kept to the minimum influence in this experiment d. During the assembly process, the areas where baseboard must be bended in order for dolly to be assembled will always resume to its original position within at least 5 replicate number of test. This means that their dimension will remain constant within 5 repetition of use. e. The geometry of baseboard and dolly made by the same mould cavity number is identical. If there is any geometrical variation, it should be small enough to have little effect in the final result. However, different mould cavity number might produce different part and this geometrical variation is allowed. Test No. Test Date Test venue Equipment used : 1 : 10 Sept 2004 : M-15a (UNISA) : Joint-arm robot Parameters settings Baseboard geometry Dolly geometry Assembling Speed : Cavity no. 7 : Cavity no. 2 : 5 mm/s Replicate no. Response Scale Factor(0-2) Replicate no. Response Scale Factor(0-2) 1 2.0 6 2.0 2 2.0 7 2.0 3 2.0 8 2.0 4 2.0 9 2.0 5 2.0 10 2.0 Mean Average, yijk = 2.0 7.6 Experimental results The graphs in 7.5 shows the results obtained from the 48 sets of experiment conducted. The graph for each test shows the average score for the 10 replicates of the assembly operation and it also indicates the consistency of the assembly process for each combination of the input factor. It can be seen that all test have a full score, except for test 2, 8, 10, 14, 20, 24, 34, 38 and 42 which score 1.9, and test 4 and 6 which score 1.8 for the consistence of the assembly process. The total number of test failed in the assembly operation is 13 and the input factor combination of these 13 tests are labelled and separated from the rest so that the root to their failure can be verified in future, and this is illustrated in 7.4 below. The assembly efficiency for the selected end effector design can then be calculated as below: Assembly Efficiency = = = 0.9729 or 97.29 % 130 Testing of the Prototype Model of the Proposed End Effector Design 7.7 Random order of test The run order of the 48 testing has been randomised as shown in Table 7.5. Randomisation of test order was exercised because it helps to lessen the effects of other factors that are not included in the study, particularly for effects that are time-dependent. Column 2 of Table 7.5 shows the test numbers which were randomly selected to be tested in order and column 6 is known as the response obtained from experiments, which is actually the mean average performance of the assembly process. The variable response scale factor is 0 to 2. Table 7.5 Test order and result obtained from each test 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Test Order Test No. A B C (mm/s) Response (0-2) Test Order Test No. A B C (mm/s) Response (0-2) 1 6 a2 b2 c1 1.8 25 44 a4 b3 c3 2.0 2 2 a2 b1 c1 1.9 26 3 a3 b1 c1 2.0 3 30 a2 b4 c2 2.0 27 8 a4 b2 c1 1.9 4 42 a2 b3 c3 1.9 28 7 a3 b2 c1 2.0 5 9 a1 b3 c1 2.0 29 10 a2 b3 c1 1.9 6 12 a4 b3 c1 2.0 30 4 a4 b1 c1 1.8 7 1 a1 b1 c1 2.0 31 13 a1 b4 c1 2.0 8 16 a4 b4 c1 2.0 32 23 a3 b2 c2 2.0 9 25 a1 b3 c2 2.0 33 18 a2 b1 c2 2.0 10 15 a3 b4 c1 2.0 34 21 a1 b2 c2 2.0 11 11 a3 b3 c1 2.0 35 17 a1 b1 c2 2.0 12 19 a3 b1 c2 2.0 36 33 a1 b1 c3 2.0 13 32 a4 b4 c2 2.0 37 27 a3 b3 c2 2.0 14 37 a1 b2 c3 2.0 38 20 a4 b1 c2 1.9 15 28 a4 b3 c2 2.0 39 31 a3 b4 c2 2.0 16 40 a4 b2 c3 2.0 40 26 a2 b3 c2 2.0 17 48 a4 b4 c3 2.0 41 36 a4 b1 c3 2.0 18 22 a2 b2 c2 2.0 42 41 a1 b3 c3 2.0 19 45 a1 b4 c3 2.0 43 43 a3 b3 c3 2.0 20 24 a4 b2 c2 1.9 44 46 a2 b4 c3 2.0 21 34 a2 b1 c3 1.9 45 38 a2 b2 c3 1.9 22 47 a3 b4 c3 2.0 46 35 a3 b1 c3 2.0 23 39 a3 b2 c3 2.0 47 29 a1 b4 c2 2.0 24 14 a2 b4 c1 1.9 48 5 a1 b2 c1 2.0 Note * A = Baseboard geometry a1 = Cavity no. 7 a2 = Cavity no. 8 a3 = Cavity no. 9 a4 = Cavity no. 10 B = Dolly geometry b1 = Cavity no. 2 b2 = Cavity no. 3 b3 = Cavity no. 4 b4 = Cavity no. 5 C = Assembling speed c1 = 5 mm/s c2 = 10 mm/s c3 = 15 mm/s 130 Testing of the Prototype Model of the Proposed End Effector Design 7.8 Use of statistical software to analyze the experimental results Assembly efficiency of 97.29 % was calculated in the previous session and this shows that there will be 1 failure for the assembly operation in every 37 cycles in the actual situation. This is obviously undesirable and must be improved. Therefore, it is necessary to know what factors that actually causes the 2.71 % to affect the consistency of the assembly operation. Generally, the use of statistical software to analyse the results of a designed experiment has been a common practice in the industries where the engineer only requires a fair knowledge of basic statistics and considerable time required for the manually statistic calculation can be reduced. In the case of this project, the software use for the analysis is known as Minitab version 13, which is available in the campus computer pool. The main objective of this software is to analyse the collected data so as to improved assembly efficiency of the selected end effector design by: a. Randomising the run order of the test. b. Generating Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) table to see which factor will affect the assembly operation significantly; this is illustrated in 7.6. c. Generating main and interaction effects plot for response to see which level of the factor will affect the assembly operation significantly. 7.8.1 Analysis of variance for the consistence of the assembly process The aim of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is to identify the source of variance that is likely to have influence in the experimental result by comparing the P-value of the input variable to some defined confidence level such as 1 %, 5 % and 10 %. According to the interpretation of ANOVA, the source of variance will become significant if its P-value is less than the defined confidence level. Table 7.6 as shown below tabulates the result of the ANOVA generated from Minitab for the three-factor fixed effect model. From the P-value in the last column of the table, it is observed that the baseboard (A) and assembling speed (C) will significantly affect the response since their P-values are far less than 0.05, which is in fact the standard and common confidence level that is set to be 5 % in this study. Dolly (B) has the P-value that is very close to the 5 % confidence level and this shows that it might have slight effect in the assembly operation. The P-value for baseboard (A) is 0.000 and this shows that it mainly affects the consistency of the assembly process no matter what confidence level is being defined. The (A C) interaction F-ratio has the P-value of 0.005, indicating that there is interaction between baseboards and the assembling speed. Table 7.6 The ANOVA table for the consistence of the assembly process Source of variance Sum of Square (SS) Degree of Freedom (DF) Mean Square (MS) F-ratio (F) P-value (P) Baseboard (A) 0.038958 3 0.012986 11.94 0.000 Dolly (B) 0.010625 3 0.003542 3.26 0.046 Assembling Speed (C) 0.012917 2 0.006458 5.94 0.010 AB (interaction) 0.018542 9 0.002060 1.89 0.119 AC (interaction) 0.030417 6 0.005069 4.66 0.005 BC (interaction) 0.003750 6 0.000625 0.57 0.746 Error 0.019583 18 0.001088 Total 0.134792 47 * Confidence level at 5 % (for general cases) 7.8.2 Interpretation of the level of main and interaction effect Once the source of variance which will affect the assembly operation was identified, it is to focus on what are the levels of that variable input that really causes the assembly process to fail. The relative importance of the level of the three main and interaction effects of the input variables on the assembly operation are shown graphically in 7.7 and 7.8. Both the magnitude and sign of the effects mean something: a. The sign tells the direction of the effects, that is, if the response increases or decreases. b. The magnitude indicates the strength of the effect. From the graph in 7.7 above, it is observed that the sign of the baseboard level changes significantly and that is why it has the 0.000 P-value in the ANOVA table. The best combination of the variable input was found to be (c2, b4 and a1 or a3), and the worst combination of the variable input is (c1, b1 or b2 and a2) which must be discarded in the assembly operation. Moreover, all the level of the variables that fall below the dotted-line, which is the position of the 5 % confidence level used in the study, should be discarded. These levels are a2, a4, b1, b2, c1 and c3. As refer to the graph in 7.8 above, the significant interaction between baseboard and assembling speed is indicated by the lack of parallelism of the average response at each level of the variables and this is obviously why it has the P-value that is less than the 5 % confidence level in the ANOVA table. It can be seen that a2 and c1 are the main causes to this significant interaction and they must be discarded in the assembly operation. In addition, (a4 c1), (a4 c2) and (a2 c3) will also have some effect in the assembly process. The results from the main effect and interaction plot are needed to combine to identify which levels of the variable that must be discarded in order to improve the assembly efficiency. This is illustrated in Table 7.7. It can be easily concluded that a2, a4 and c1 must be discarded as their duplicated existence in the table had mainly caused the inconsistency of the assembly operation during the experiment. The generated statistical data from Minitab version 13 can be found in Appendix H. Table 7.7 Summary of the result of the main effect and interaction plot Severity of the Significance (in the assembly process) Main Effect Plot (Level of the variable input) Interaction Plot (Level of the variable input) 1 a2 a2 c1 2 c1 a2 c3 3 b1, b2 a4 c1 4 a4 a4 c2 7.9 Analysis of the root to the discarded input variable It had been found that mould cavity 8 and 10 which manufactures baseboard, and assembling speed of 5 mm/s must be discarded in order for the assembly operation to be consistent. However, it is important to understand what actually causes these two variables to be discarded so that further recommendations can be used to improve the assembly operation. 7.9.1 Cause of the discarded assembling speed Among the three assembling speeds mentioned previously, medium speed of 10 mm/s is found to be the best while slow speed of 5 mm/s is found to be the worst. It shows that the initial guess of slow assembling speed will be the best is absolutely wrong. As dolly is not really secured by the suction cup of the end effector during assembly operation, there will be a higher chance that it will move around inside the end effector and cause the assembly operation to fail if the assembling speed is too slow. However, if the assembling speed is too fast, the shaft of dolly might not have sufficient time to insert properly into the hole of baseboard and this cause the failure of the assembly operation. As a result, medium assembling speed of 10 mm/s becomes the best choice. 7.9 as shown below illustrates the failure of the assembly operation due to the inappropriate setting of the assembling speed. 7.9.2 Cause of the discarded baseboard Although mould cavity 7 and 9, which manufactures baseboard, produce excellent result during the experiment of assembly operation, it is impossible to discard all baseboard from the other two mould cavities as this will cause the number of baseboard to be insufficient for the assembly operation. In contrast, it is more important to distinguish the geometric difference of baseboard from all the mould cavities. Inspection of the baseboard geometry All the baseboards involved in the failures of the assembly operation are deeply inspected. Since mould cavity 7 and cavity 9 have no influence in the assembly operation, one of them is also inspected to compare with the inspection result of the failed part so that any geometric difference between the measured parts can be identified. Simultaneously, it is necessary to establish some useful dimension to be measured and this is illustrated in 7.10. Basically, the reason to obtain these three dimensions of A, B and C can be briefly explained as below: A. This dimension is important as its variation will directly affect the success of the assembly process, especially when it is too large. B. This dimension will affect the position of the baseboard to be assembled. C. This dimension sits inside the fixture and any variation of it will also affect the position of baseboard to be assembled. From the graph, it can be seen that dimension B and C have the two lines that are very close to each other, while dimension A has the two lines that is quite apart from each other. Moreover, the entire dimension A values of the failed baseboard are higher than the good baseboard. Therefore, it shows that this increased dimension A values of the failed baseboard had significantly caused the assembly operation to fail. Furthermore, out of the three dimensions value, only dimension A value has increased and it indicates that the problem did not come from the shrinkage problem of the mould cavity, otherwise all the three dimension value should have together increased. It is believed that the initial assumption that baseboard will resume to its original position within 5 replicates during the experiment is not valid, and thus causes dimension A value of the baseboard to increase. This is probably due to the different setting of the temperature in the injection moulding machine which event ually affects the material property of the baseboard and causes the assembly operation to fail. Repetitive use of baseboards in the experiment As mentioned before, each of the baseboards was used 5 times before they were replaced with a new piece in the experiment due to the limited supply of the part from Clipsal. This means that each of the new part of baseboard and dolly was used only in the first and sixth replicate of the test number, while the fifth and tenth replicate of the test number are the part that were repeatedly used for five times during the experiment. In this case, the replicate number which failed in each of the test during the experiment of the assembly operation was observed. Table 7.8 as shown below summarize this observation. It can be seen that all the test number of the failed baseboard fall between the forth and last replicate number. It shows that the poor material property of the baseboards had made baseboards sustain excessive bending and that is why they could not resume to its initial position after 4 or 5 repeatedly use, and thus caused the assembly operation to fail. As a matter of fact, baseboard will be required to be bended for only one time in the actual assembly operation in Clipsal and this shows that the actual assembly efficiency should be more than 97.29 % if baseboard or dolly was not used repeatedly during the experiment. However, it is impossible to verify this value by conducting another set of experiments due to the limited time and resource in the project. Therefore, it can be concluded that the repetitive use of baseboard from mould cavity 8 and 10 had significantly increased the baseboard geometry but this will not affect the performance of the actual assembly operation in Clipsal. Table 7.8 Summary of the replication used of the failed baseboard during experiment Failed Baseboard Test No. 2 4 4 6 6 8 10 14 20 24 34 38 42 Replicate No. in Each Test No. 10 5 9 4 10 5 5 9 5 9 5 4 10 No. of Repetition of Use 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 Observing of the assembly operation during the experiment During the experiment, not only the results of the 480 replicates of the assembly process were recorded, but their behaviours were also observed very carefully. It was found that the two shafts of dolly did not really insert into baseboard together, but they rather inserted one side and then followed by the other side into baseboard, even when dolly was pushed from its centre. This two-motion insertion situation had made dolly to be shifted very close to one side of baseboard after assembly operation and this eventually might force the inserted dolly to pounce back from baseboard, especially when the geometry of baseboard is somehow increased. This observation is illustrated in 7.12 as shown below. It can be seen that this observation is actually similar to the one that had obtained during the force analysis in chapter 4. Therefore, it can be concluded that either dolly geometry needs to be increased or baseboard geometry needs to be decreased in order to maintain the high consistenc y of the assembly operation. 7.10 Conclusion Since the response of the proposed assembly operation is either pass or fail, which is much different from those situations where specific tolerance is given. As a result, three factors full factorial experiment, which requires tremendous number of trial of 480, was conducted to analyze the performance of the assembly operation. The assembly efficiency was found to be 97.29 %, which is quite far away from the manual one of 99.69 %. The result obtained from the statistical software of Minitab shows that the optimal assembling speed is 10 mm/s and dolly geometry had very little or negligible effect in the assembly process. Baseboard mould cavity number 8 and 10 were initially found to have significant influence on the inconsistency of the assembly operation. However, it was later clarified that the repetitive use of baseboards in the experiment are then the main cause to it The automatic assembly efficiency is then believed to be much higher but this is impossible to be verified by conducting set of experiment due to the limited resource in the project. Finally, observations obtained in DOE and force analysis are used to conclude that either dolly geometry needs to be increased or baseboard geometry needs to be decreased. This is important as it will help to further increase the assembly efficiency.

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

The Issues of Globalization on National Cultures of Indonesia

Introduction The issues of globalization increasingly dominate the universe’s life. The concept of globalization according to Robertson (1992) refers to the narrowing of the world as incentives and increased our awareness of the world, namely the increasing global connections and our understanding of the connection. Globalization is a situation in which no boundaries between the people of the world and links communities in a country with people in another countries. Globalization departs from an idea to unite the nations which is expected to be a mutual agreement and guidelines for nations around the world. Globalization is able to waive the space and time constraints to get the interaction and communication between nations can be done†¦show more content†¦For example, Apple. In the social field, the majority of Indonesian society begin to forget their identity as Indonesian nation, especially young people. It is due to they are so easily imitate the culture and lifestyle of anoth er country. For example, korean pop or k-pop. This essay discuses the relevance of culture for understanding globalization and cultural change taking place in Indonesia. The issue of globalization and cultural change has recently figured prominently in various discourses in Indonesia, especially in relation to the question of how Indonesia’s cultural identities should be maintained in the face of such a global process. Globalization of Culture Aart Scholte said globalization is a series of processes in which social relations become relative regardles of geographic region. Domnique Wolton, Head of Research Center of the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) Franch when visiting Indonesia on 13 December 2004 stated, â€Å"The world today will enter the new developments of globalization. Culture globalization comes after political and economic globalization. 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Culture has evolved from the scholarly concept and become the politicalRead MoreIntensifying Working Women’s Burden: The Impact of Globa lization on Women Labor in Asia1464 Words   |  6 Pagesvarying levels and degree of intensities of women’s work as they contribute to a country’s development and how the intricacies of free-trade or globalization impacts the lives of women- their personhood, their families and their communities. The research involved about eight (8) Asian countries – India, Hongkong, Thailand, Pakistan, Sri Langka, Indonesia, South Korea and the Philippines with poor women who are very much involved and working in the fishing, agriculture, manufacturing/industrial sectorsRead MoreImpact Of Management On The Globalization Of Business1374 Words   |  6 Pages Impact of management in the globalization of business Ruth Wills University of the People Abstract The purpose of this paper is to show impact of management in the globalization of business. 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In the end, I studied InternationalRead MoreBusiness Expansion in Indonesia1643 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction - Globalism gradually developed over the last few decades because of the increased number of regional trade agreements combined with Internet and phone communication improvements. Globalization has brought the world closer in communication, economics, politics, and especially business. Th e Internet and technological improvements have allowed instantaneous communication almost anywhere, and even poor women in India are using Smartphones to manage their banking portfolios. The idea ofRead MoreThe Future of Globalization5305 Words   |  22 Pagesâ€Å"The Future of Globalization† What exactly is globalisation? Before I talk about the future of globalization it is first of all important to understand what it truly means. From my research on the topic I feel that the following definition by the IMF is the most accurate. They describe globalization as the â€Å"growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and a variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows and alsoRead MoreWriting And The Teaching Of Writing1037 Words   |  5 PagesWriting and the Teaching of Writing in Higher Education in Indonesia One of language skills that need to be mastered by learners of English in EFL context is writing. The teaching of writing, in general, aims at developing students’ ability to utilize their knowledge effectively in certain text. However, learning to write in English is not easy for non-native speakers of English because L1 writing is different from L2 writing. Silva (1993, p. 669) mentions that â€Å"L2 writing is strategically, rhetoricallyRead MoreGlobalization of Eating Disorders1382 Words   |  6 PagesThe Globalization of Eating Disorders Eating disorders are a huge problem across the nation. Some of these disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia-nervosa, binge eating, and body dysmorphic disorder. Anorexia is a disorder in which subject obsesses about food and how much they eat, while a Bulimic person eats an excessive amount of food, then purges. People affected by these disorders are obsessed with food however; they do not want the calories, so they eat as much as they can, then throw itRead MoreGlobalization Essay1401 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract- Globalization has impacted nearly every aspect of modern life. While some U.S. citizens may not be able to locate Beijing, China on a map, they certainly purchase a high number of goods that were manufactured there. There is no set definition for globalization, there is also no clear answer to whether or not globalization is good or bad. There are examples of how globalization has helped a country greatly, but there are also examples of globalization causing harm to the growth and prosperity

Monday, December 9, 2019

Don Giovanni Critique Of The Short Story free essay sample

Don Giovanni, Critique Of The Short Story Essay, Research Paper In Garrison Keillor s short narrative Don Giovanni the chief character, Don Giovanni, is portrayed as a ego centered, self functioning, scoring womaniser. The narrative focuses on conversations held between The Don and Figaro. In these conversations The Don efforts to gnaw Figaro s positive positions on matrimony. The attitude that The Don has about adult females is negatively viewed by most societies, and it s because of this attitude that he ends up at the fiery Gatess of snake pit! The narrative Begins by puting up, in the head of the reader, a mental image of an old seducer prophesying his doctrines through clouds of coffin nail fume. The Don says, Figaro, my friend, a adult male owes it to himself to halt and see the three advantages of individual life. One, if you re individual, you can believe. Two, you can move. We will write a custom essay sample on Don Giovanni Critique Of The Short Story or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Three, you can experience there is no prison so lifelessly as a life of unnecessities, which is what matrimony is. In most faiths matrimony is considered a sacred connection of two people. The Don s doctrine undermines the matrimony political orientation to the point that it is iniquitous to the spiritual community. Even if a individual is non active in faith, s/he normally has a set of ethical motives that frown upon the life of a participant. The Don s 2nd ruin is his sexual wonts. Any individual who portions his/her bed with different spouses, including the occasional married one, each dark of the hebdomad, walks with a black cloud over his/her caput. At one point in the narrative The Don tells Figaro that Some work forces should hold two lovers, some three ; it depends on the adult male I am selfish, Figaro, because I have a larger capacity for pleasance than other people do this to me is the beauty of the male being. The narrative takes topographic point in Fargo, Nort H Dakota, which is a conservative earthy metropolis. The actions that The Don takes are considered immoral, a main road to hell. As cogent evidence that The Don s doctrines don t match those of the society that he lives in, the writer uses Figaro as a foil. Don tries to convert Figaro that the monogamous life is inferior, and Figaro efforts to deliver The Don s psyche. The life of a debauched ends severely, Figaro says. You get old, your dentitions turn xanthous, you smell like a cur, and you have to pay adult females to look at you This transition shows how Figaro attempts to convert The Don that the route he travels will stop unpleasantly. In the stoping scene of the narrative The Don is speaking with Figaro alternatively of playing the piano ( the occupation he was hired for ) . His foreman walks in the door and says, Time to travel, Giovanni Yer outta here. You broke the trade. Yer history. The occupation s over. Travel it. On the actual degree this merely means that he is fired. The transition can besides be taken symbolically. The adult male with heavy palpebras, instead than being The Don s foreman, can be viewed as snake pit s gate keeper. This is made obvious when Figaro pictures the adult male with hooves alternatively of places. When the adult male says Yer outta here, here can be Earth or life, instead than the saloon. When he says, you broke the trade, the trade refers to adult male s duty to populate within the Torahs of decency. Don Giovanni s beliefs, though they seem to be the perfect life to him, lead to his decease. To everyone about him this is obvious, but Don believes so strongly in his ways that he would instead decease than be confined within the walls of matrimony. This narrative goes beyond the single degree ; it besides portrays the conflict between two separate belief systems. Don Giovanni may be sane in his ain head, but non in the eyes of society as a whole.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Surfing Practice Expository Essay Essay Example

Surfing Practice Expository Essay Essay Practice Essay – Academic Writing Many people say surfing isn’t a sport, it’s a lifestyle – but, it’s more than that. From the moment you first step in the ocean to the day you die it is a part of you. It becomes the way you think and what plays across your mind when you are in that subconscious state between awake and asleep. It has an affair with your emotions and embeds itself in the depths of your heart. You cannot get rid of the ocean once it’s made its mark on you. It is unlike any other addiction on the planet. They say too much of anything can kill you, but, when it comes to surfing – you can never get enough. Surfing began in the islands of Hawaii, the first ever report written by Lieutenant James King of Captain James Cook’s ship Discovery. In this report he described the art of surfing over two pages in the narrative portion of Captain Cook’s journals. Surfing was an extremely spiritual and important part of Hawaiian life, so much so, that places were named after particular surfing incedents. When the Calvinistic Christian Missionaries arrived in Hawaii the number of surfers in the water declined rapidly as the missionaries claimed the sport, amongst others, was â€Å"Against the laws of God†. For years it was rare to see a surfer in the water, the surfing culture had almost died out. However, in 1907 Jack London a famous author took a vacation in Hawaii – staying in Waikiki – and was introduced to surfing by Alexander Hume Ford and George Freeth. Being an author, it was no surprise when Jack wrote of his surfing experience in his book entitled A Royal Sport: Surfing in Waikiki. This new publicity breathed life into the dying sport – and not long after – George Freeth was asked to put on a wave riding demonstration in California, bringing surfing to America. Now days, surfing is a huge sport. There are approximately 23 million surfers worldwide, a stark contrast to the late 1800’s in Hawaii. Surf companies are popping up all over the place – their main aim to provide surf equipment and apparel to the surf community and those who fancy the style. Surfing has grown, not only as a leisure sport, but also in competition. Currently, there are 34 men and 17 women competing on the WCT (World Championship Tour), and millions more taking to the water in small town events and larger professional or amateur competitions. We will write a custom essay sample on Surfing Practice Expository Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Surfing Practice Expository Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Surfing Practice Expository Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Surfing is also making its way into the film industry, with surf photography and documentaries becoming increasingly popular. With all the hype and inflation of surfing, it will still remain a magical and adrenaline pumping experience. There are many surfers who surf for the pure joy of being out in the ocean, at one with rising and falling swells, no matter how far it is extracted from its humble, spiritual beginnings in Hawaii. These surfers are known as soul surfers – and it is these people that will continue to keep surfing alive for generations to come.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

How to Set and Use Cookies in PHP

How to Set and Use Cookies in PHP As a website developer, you can use PHP to set cookies  that contain information about the visitors to your website. Cookies store information about a site visitor on the visitors computer that can be accessed upon a return visit. One common use of cookies is to store an access token so the user doesnt need to log in each time he visits your website. Cookies can also store other information such as the users name, the date of the last visit and shopping-cart contents. Although cookies have been around for years and most people have them enabled, some users either do not accept them because of privacy concerns or automatically delete them when their browsing session closes. Because cookies can be removed by a user at any time and are stored in a plain-text format, dont use them to store anything sensitive. How to Set a Cookie Using PHP In PHP, the setcookie() function defines a cookie. Its sent along with the other HTTP headers and transmits before the body of the HTML is parsed. A cookie follows the syntax: setcookie(name,value,expire,path,domain,secure,httponly); where name​ denotes the name of the cookie and ​value​ describes the cookies contents. ​For the setcookie() function, only the  name​ parameter is required. All other parameters are optional.   Example Cookie ​To set a  cookie named UserVisit in the visitors browser that sets the value to the current date, and further sets the expiration to be  in 30 days (2592000 60 seconds * 60 mins * 24 hours * 30 days), use the following PHP code: ?php $Month 2592000 time();//this adds 30 days to the current timesetcookie(UserVisit, date(F jS - g:i a), $Month);? Cookies must be sent before any HTML is sent to the page or they do not work, so the setcookie() function must appear before the html tag. How to Retrieve a Cookie using PHP To retrieve a cookie from the users computer upon the next visit, call it with the following code: ?phpif(isset($_COOKIE[UserVisit])){$last $_COOKIE[UserVisit];echo Welcome back! br You last visited on . $last;}else{echo Welcome to our site!;}? This code first checks if the cookie exists. If it does, it welcomes the user back and announces when the user last visited. If the user is new, it prints a generic welcome message. TIP: If you are calling a cookie on the same page you plan to set one, retrieve it before you overwrite it. How to Destroy a Cookie To destroy a cookie, use setcookie() again but set the expiration date to be in the past: ?php $past time() - 10; //this makes the time 10 seconds ago setcookie(UserVisit, date(F jS - g:i a), $past);? ​Optional Parameters In addition to value  and  expire, the setcookie() function supports several other optional parameters: Path​ identifies the server path of the cookie. If you set it to / then the cookie will be available to the entire domain. By default, the cookie works in the directory its set in, but you can force it to work in other directories by specifying them with this parameter. This function cascades, so all subdirectories within a specified directory will also have access to the cookie.Domain​  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹identifies the specific domain that the cookie works in. To make the cookie work on all subdomains, specify the top-level domain explicitly (e.g., If you set the domain to then the cookie is only available in the www subdomain.Secure​ specifies whether the cookie should transmit over a secure connection. If this value is set to TRUE then the cookie will set only for HTTPS connections. The default value is FALSE.Httponly​, when set to TRUE, will only allow the cookie to be accessed by the HTTP protocol. By default, the value is FALSE. T he benefit of setting the cookie to TRUE is that scripting languages cannot access the cookie.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Wood Surname Meaning and Origin

Wood Surname Meaning and Origin WOOD Surname Meaning Origin: 1) Originally used to describe a person who lived in or worked in a wood or forest. Derived from Middle English wode, meaning wood. 2) Possibly derived from the Old English wad, meaning crazed or crazy, the name was sometimes used to describe someone considered mad or violent. 3) An ancient Scottish surname, first called De Bosco, because the family bore trees in their coat of arms. Wood is the 75th most popular surname in the United States. Ward is also popular in England, coming in as the 26th most common surname. Surname Origin: English, Scottish Alternate Surname Spellings: WOODE, WOODS Genealogy Resources for the Surname WOOD: 100 Most Common U.S. Surnames Their MeaningsSmith, Johnson, Williams, Jones, Brown... Are you one of the millions of Americans sporting one of these top 100 common last names from the 2000 census? WOOD Family Genealogy ForumSearch this popular genealogy forum for the Wood surname to find others who might be researching your ancestors, or post your own Wood query. FamilySearch - WOOD GenealogyFind records, queries, and lineage-linked family trees posted for the Wood surname and its variations. WOOD Surname Family Mailing ListsRootsWeb hosts several free mailing lists for researchers of the Wood surname. Cousin Connect - WOOD Genealogy QueriesRead or post genealogy queries for the surname Wood, and sign up for free notification when new Wood queries are added. - WOOD Genealogy Family HistoryFree databases and genealogy links for the last name Wood. Looking for the meaning of a given name? Check out First Name Meanings Cant find your last name listed? Suggest a surname to be added to the Glossary of Surname Meanings Origins. - References: Surname Meanings Origins Cottle, Basil. Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967. Menk, Lars. A Dictionary of German Jewish Surnames. Avotaynu, 2005. Beider, Alexander. A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from Galicia. Avotaynu, 2004. Hanks, Patrick and Flavia Hodges. A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989. Hanks, Patrick. Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003. Smith, Elsdon C. American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997. Back to Glossary of Surname Meanings Origins

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Financial System at NEXT Plc in Relation to Its Performance Case Study

Financial System at NEXT Plc in Relation to Its Performance - Case Study Example Exploring the impact from the global conditions on the performance of the company being highly effective on firm understudy the report also assessed the future prospects for NEXT brand. The assessment upon developing concluding remarks suggests recommendations for business to maintain success. The recommendation includes a business suggestion to expand with a premium brand and adopting acquisition strategy and efforts to enhance value to gift line and sports. Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 Table of Contents 2 MANAGING THE ORGANISATION 5 The Financial Statements and Current Performance 5 Company Performance Comparison with Industry and Sector 8 The Impact of the Global Economy 12 Future Prospects of the Company 14 CONCLUSION 14 RECOMMENDATION 15 List of References 16 Appendix 18 INTRODUCTION NEXT has been in the business for around 150 years. Group in 1982 revolutionized business and created the brand NEXT. The brand put forward the retailing business for NEXT corporate with co llections of branded women wear and accessories. NEXT Plc offered an affordable line of offerings with distinctive styled products. Over years NEXT expanded the range to men wear in 1984; home interiors line has been introduced in 1985; children wear were introduced in 1987; in 1988 Next Directory was introduced offering a range of products for home shopping. In 1999 NEXT has launched online shopping version entitled NEXT Directory. This expansion credited NEXT Plc pioneer among the businesses offering sales services from triple modes i.e. from shops, by phone and then online. NEXT started day delivery standard and transferred almost 80% of the business online by 2001. NEXT Plc then launched ‘NEXT flowers’ followed by the launch of ‘NEXT gift line’ in the year 2005 (Next, 2012). Continuing with affordable offerings with distinguished style, NEXT Plc has expanded the signature brand in 2007 offering homeward and fashion. 2010 noted NEXT’s launch of NX Sports and then became official staff ware and another textile supplier for the Olympics Athletes Village (Next, 2012). Next Plc currently has 540 stores in the UK while NEXT Directory is serving almost 60 counties of the world with the majority of them being served directly and 14 countries being served through six partners. The success of NEXT can be gauged with fact that only NEXT Directory has 3.3 million active customers. NEXT Plc international has 170 stores in around 33 countries operated through a franchise business. The brand also has 19 company-owned stores in 7 countries (Next, 2012). Other areas of operation include NEXT Sourcing, the segment responsible for designing, sourcing, buying, merchandising and quality control operations of Next Plc products. NEXT Sourcing has the operation in the UK as well as China, Sri Lanka, India, and Hong Kong. In 2008, Next has also acquired fashion brand which is targeting younger women entitled Lipsy and the firm also generates busine ss through property management (Next, 2012). Figure 1 shows the share of business and profits in segments of business in all of Next Corporation for the year 2013. A share price of NEXT Plc has been trading at ? 43.36 as on 11/04/2013 with market capitalization? 6.99 billion (Next, n.d). Share price performance of Next Plc in comparison with FTSE and the general retailer has been shown in figure 2 in the appendix section.  

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Advantages and Limitation of International Trade Assignment

Advantages and Limitation of International Trade - Assignment Example This essay explores the issues surrounding international trade. The Theory of Comparative Advantage. If two countries X and Y trade in two goods G and H, both can benefit by specializing in the good in which they have a comparative advantage and then trading them. This has been proved valid even when country X has an absolute advantage in both goods due to the complexities of intra-country distribution of resources. Distribution of Gains and Losses from Trade. If goods G and H use two inputs, K and L (capital/ labor), at given prices, production of goods will probably utilize inputs in different ratios. If G uses a higher ratio of K to L than H, production of that good becomes K-intensive, relative to H. Here, if G is K-intensive, it will mean that H is L-intensive.  If country X’s inputs of production have a higher ratio of K to L than country Y, then X is K-abundant and Y is L-abundant, relatively. A country will tend to export products which are intensive in factors that country has in abundance. A labor-abundant country (say country Y), will tend to export labor-intensive products. Also, country X’s capital-intensive exports will rise. As it does so, the relative price of the abundant factor in that country will rise. The L-abundant country will see labor prices rising, i.e. wages will rise. The purchasing power of owners of labor will rise; purchasing power of owners of capital will fall. International trade will tend to equalize the relative prices of the two factors in the two countries

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The development in the new world Essay Example for Free

The development in the new world Essay The 17th century was the colonial era when the British settled in North America. These colonies are categorized into three groups- New England, Middle, and Southern. Although economy and religion had importance, geography was the primary factor in shaping the development of the British colonies. Although the separatists came to North America for religious reasons, it was not the reason for New England’s development and prosperity. Geography is the primary factor because economic activities and trade were all dependent of the environment in which the colonists lived. Its cold climate, thick forest, and poor rocky soil made the land unsuitable for crops. Therefore, they had to rely on the natural resources they had. The towns along the coast made their living off fish, whaling, and shipbuilding. The coast New England settled on is important in showing the precedence of geography because it provided the colonies with a booming cod fishing industry. If they had not settled where they did, they would not have developed such a marketable product. The cod fishing industry along with the triangular trade is the reason economy was the secondary factor. Cod played an important role in developing the economy of colonial New England. In The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith wrote about New England cod fishing as an example of the successful practice of free enterprise. The triangular trade route, which came to Boston in 17th century, is another example of economy contributing the development of the colonies. Boston carried rum made in New England to Africa to trade for slaves that were brought to Caribbean plantations, where molasses was purchased and brought back to New England to make rum. This is important because this new economic development was a huge growth of rum-making distilleries in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. It also gave a push to other industries, such as shipbuilding to carry goods to longer distances such as Africa. Religion was the last factor in the development of the New England colonies. The famous group of separatists departed to Holland to flee from King James I religious persecution. After twelve years of living in Holland, the English’s children started to become â€Å"Dutchified†, so they secured rights with the Virginia Company to settle under their jurisdiction and ended up in the Massachusetts Bay colony. However, within these religious communities were those that had their own beliefs. This is  important to the development of New England because these people would create their own colonies, i.e. Anne Hotchinson and Roger Williams. Hotchinson challenged Puritan orthodoxy by saying that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and the truly saved do not need to obey the law of God. She was then exiled and found Rhode Island along with Roger Williams, who was too exiled for he challenged the bay colony for taking Indian land unfairly. Many came to Rhode Island because they granted complete religious freedom, even for Jews and Catholics. Geography was the primary factor in shaping the development of the Middle Colonies. New York was founded at the mouth of the Hudson River and Philadelphia on the Delaware River. This is important because it created the perfect location for trade. It proves geography to be the primary factor because if the colonies were not founded along the coast they would not have been able to create the profitable trading posts that they had, which would then lead to lack of economic success. Pennsylvania had fertile soil and a mild climate well suited for farming and agriculture. They had raw materials such as timbers, fur, and coal, but most importantly, iron ore. This is significant to proving geography as the primary factor because not only could they take advantage of New York and New Jersey’s location at ports to export their agricultural products, but they could also manufacture their own iron products such as plows, locks, and nails, and export them to England. If it were not for the geography of where they settled, they would not have been able to create such a large business, making it the primary factor in the development of the Middle Colonies. The close second is economy. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware were developed into profitable trading centers. The excellent harbors along the coasts of the Middle Colonies were ideal sites for cities. This was the perfect place for merchants to export cash crops, especially grain, and imported manufactured goods. This trade was important to the development of the Middle Colonies because it resulted in Philadelphia becoming the fastest growing city in the colonies. The city’s wealth brought public improvements such as Philadelphia’s statehouse (Independence Hall) and streetlights along paved roads. New York also attained its rapid growth from trading. Its busy port handled numerous products including flour, bread, furs, and whale oil. Not only did their trade ports create large profit and advancement in cities, it created large diversity. Various immigrant groups arrived in the port cities of the Middle Colonies. This would prove to be helpful because one of the largest immigrant groups was the Germans, who continued to help in the Middle Colonies’ economy. They were known to be advanced in farming and brought over their tradition of artisanship. They built Conestoga wagons that were suitable for carrying produce throughout towns and offered covers to protect the produce from rain. Most of these Germans came as indentured servants searching for religious tolerance. Religion also made a big contribution to the Middle Colonies. William Penn was attracted to the Quaker faith in 1660 at only sixteen years old. Wanting to create an asylum for his people, Penn received a grant from the king in 1681. His Quaker faith demanded Pennsylvania to have no tax-supported church, no demanded allegiance, equality between men and women, no slavery, and most importantly, freedom of worship. As a result, immigrants flooded the colony. Although Penn was against slavery, many of the immigrants were not, thus African slavery began. This proves religion to be of influence to the shaping of development in the Middle Colonies because it provided large population growth and started some of the slavery in the North. Geography is the primary factor for the Southern Colonies’ success and development. The colonists of Jamestown settled in the Chesapeake area, which was largely swampy. In this muggy area, the colonists were subject to an onslaught of diseases such as malaria and yellow fever. This inhibited the development of the colony for after two years they still only had a population of 400. England sent the colonists to the New World in hopes to repeat the success of Spaniards who found gold in South America. However, once they realized the land was incapable of offering gold, they were forced to change their goals, i.e. grow their own food and find a marketable commodity. Virginia, Maryland, and Carolina all found gold in their tobacco, rice, and sugar plantations. Therefore, although economic success was the main reason for the Southern Colonies’ survival, it could not have been possible without the lands’ fertile soil and warm climates, which proves geography to be the primary factor. Therefore, economics, being the savior of the Virginia colony, is secondary in the development of the Southern  Colonies. John Rolfe brought commercial success to Jamestown by introducing tobacco as a colonial export. Colonists now hungered for more land to grow tobacco. Now that they had more tobacco plantations, they needed more workers. This is important because it began African slavery in the colonies. This proves that economy is important because it would dramatically shape the morals and viewpoint of slavery in the rest of the colonies. Maryland had the largest slave population who worked on cotton, tobacco, rice, sugar, and indigo plantations. This is important because it also contributed to the Southern Colonies’ economic success. However, it also unfortunately proves the beginnings of slavery in the south. Religion had little importance in comparison to geography and economics. In 1649, the colony of Maryland passed the Act of Toleration, which guaranteed toleration to all Christians. It decreed the death penalty to any group who denied the divinity of God; therefore, it granted Catholics safety. This is important to religion because after the colonial era ended, Maryland sheltered Roman Catholics more than any other colony. In this way, it proves that religion had albeit little, some importance in shaping the development in the Southern Colonies. As a whole, colonial America’s development was influenced by geography, religion, and economy. However, the most important contribution was made by geography. Without its land and resources, the colonies would not have been able to prosper and develop into the successful colonies they became. Each of the three groups had their own unique aspects such as the coast, ports, and fertility, and that is all they needed to begin their industrious colonies.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Lord of the Flies Characters :: essays papers

Lord of the Flies Characters In his first novel, William Golding used a group of boys stranded on a tropical island to illustrate the malicious nature of mankind. Lord of the Flies dealt with changes that the boys underwent as they gradually adapted to the isolated freedom from society. Three main characters depicted different effects on certain individuals under those circumstances. Jack Merridew began as the arrogant and self-righteous leader of a choir. The freedom of the island allowed him to further develop the darker side of his personality as the Chief of a savage tribe. Ralph started as a self-assured boy whose confidence in himself came from the acceptance of his peers. He had a fair nature as he was willing to listen to Piggy. He became increasingly dependent on Piggy's wisdom and became lost in the confusion around him. Towards the end of the story his rejection from their society of savage boys forced him to fend for himself. Piggy was an educated boy who had grown up as an outcast. Due to his acade mic childhood, he was more mature than the others and retained his civilized behaviour. But his experiences on the island gave him a more realistic understanding of the cruelty possessed by some people.The ordeals of the three boys on the island made them more aware of the evil inside themselves and, in some cases, made the false politeness that had clothed them disappear. However, the changes experienced by one boy differed from those endured by another. This is attributable to the physical and mental differences between them. Jack was first described with having an air of cruelty that made him naturally unlikeable. As leader of the choir and one of the tallest boys on the island, Jack's physical height and authority matched his arrogant personality. His desire to be Chief was clearly evident in his first appearance. When the idea of having a Chief was mentioned Jack spoke out immediately. "I ought to be chief," said Jack with simple arrogance, "because I'm chapter chorister and head boy." He led his choir by administering much discipline resulting in forced obedience from the cloaked boys. His ill-nature was well expressed through his impoliteness in saying, "Shut up, Fatty." at Piggy (p. 23). However, despite his unpleasant personality, his lack of courage and his conscience prevented him from killing the first pig they encountered: "They knew very well why he hadn't: because of the enormity of the knife descending and cutting into living flesh; because of the unbearable blood" (p.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Explain key influences on personal learning processes

Learners must complete 100 hours work experience s a requirement of this unit. Unit introduction Initially, learners will explore factors that affect learning, then plan and monitor their personal and professional development and reflect on it. They will gain a key understanding of the health and social care sectors, including aspects of service delivery and the fundamentals of research methodology. Learners will consider their personal and professional development holistically, linking different units within their programmes and also their personal experiences.This unit explores the different ways in which learning can take place and how earning from individual experiences can be used to enhance the quality of knowledge, skills and practice. Learners will explore concepts of learning and relate these to their preferred learning styles and other factors that influence their learning. Learners will initially consider their knowledge, skills, practice, values and beliefs in relation to working in health and social care. They will then draw up a personal plan personal abilities, goals and career aspirations.Learners will review their progress against these plans at intervals throughout the programme, adjusting them as appropriate to changing circumstances. They will develop the ability to draw on a range of sources of information to assess their personal and professional development, including their vocational experience and other relevant experiences such as their formal study, employment and/or voluntary activity. The unit introduces learners to health and social care service provision and research methodology, both of which can be extended in other units within the programme.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Inquirer is the leading broadsheet in the Philippines Essay

Inquirer is the leading broadsheet in the Philippines. In 2001, it launched Libre, a free tabloid distributed in the MRT-LRT area. It was an unprecedented move of a major daily giving away their newspaper on weekdays and recovering cost solely from advertising revenue. Visit the MRT-LRT site and discuss and explain your answers to the following: Background: Inquirer Libre (Inquirer Free) is a free, bilingual (Filipino and English) tabloid published in the Philippines. It is published by the Philippine Daily Inquirer and is considered a trimmed-down version of the Philippine Daily Inquirer that is distributed on public transport. It is available in all stations of LRT, MRT and PNR, WGA Eva Macapagal Port in Metro Manila, as well as selected branches of McDonald’s. Unlike other Philippine tabloids, Inquirer Libre seeks to provide commuters access to decent, useful and meaningful news and current events. The income generated from distributing Inquirer Libre comes from advertising. a.What was the underserved and unserved market Inquirer was trying to tap? Underserved – used to describe a place, market, etc. where fewer goods and services are available than there should be. Unserved – there is totally no goods and services available for the people. Answer: A. The Inquirer created first a market niches that identified the needs or wants of the target market that were poorly addressed or not at all by their competitors. These niches showed them the underserved and unserved market which was composed of the commuters of the MRT-LRT stations with 500, 000 average commuters per day, even greater than its intended capacity. It’s a very diversed public which includes students, office clerks, professionals, etc. who rode trains everyday in their way to school, work, and their destinations. This people were always in a hurry and therefore have no time to read the news. Their age ranges from 18-40 years old. B. There are many management concepts to choose from. For instance, core  competency espouses that the company’s assets or strengths be the unit of analysis while industry analysis advocates that competition be the unit of analysis. Then there is also market-driven strategy that promotes customers in the center of strategy while market-driving strategy focuses on underserved and unserved markets as unit of analysis for strategy. A popular concept, Blue Ocean Strategy, is considered a subset of market-driving strategy since it entails two additional requirements, other than new demand, that of creating differentiation and being low-cost. One critique about contemporary marketing practitioners is that they are actually market-driven strategists, who may not fully understand the principles, frameworks and concepts of market-driving strategy to grow the brand and the business long-term, hence, their tools are often short-term, brand switching tactics, designed to gain market shares. If the company’s reward system is aligned with desired strategic thinking, then market penetration, in addition to market shares, would have to be imposed by management as part of its key result areas. Without a market-driving strategy, a marketing plan focusing solely on the served market is incomplete as it risks losing the underserved or unserved markets, many times, even bigger than the current served customers. In Mansmith and Fielders Inc., market-driving strategy is defined as embracing innovative changes in the logic of industry and business system to grow its profit and industry’s demand from underserved and unserved markets. The goal is not incremental but strategic growth and has three different levels: level 1 is about a major change in value proposition more than a major change in business system; level 2 is about a major change in business system more than a major change in value proposition; while level 3 is about a major change in value proposition coupled with a major change in business system. Selecta ice cream by Walls is an example of level 1 market-driving strategy. Selecta is the dominant brand of ice cream in the Philippines, but it was not so a few years ago, as it was neck-to-neck with Nestle. Problematic with declining industry demand, the marketers went on to ask mothers what  they liked to serve during birthdays and what they actually served. The result of their insighting led them to launch Selecta’s 3-in-1 ice cream, combining three of the favorite ice cream flavors in a tub at an affordable price. With this huge success that turned around shrinking industry demand, they even extended to four flavors with 3-in-1 plus 1, wanting to own the term â€Å"3-in-1.† Meantime, Nestle was not able to immediately respond with the new value proposition of Selecta, as they did not have the technology to do 3-in-1. Mothers were happy they were able to serve what they really liked to serve, children were happy with each of their favorite flavors, while fathers were happy too with a cost-saving solution, improving not just company’s sales but also industry demand in the process, attracting many lapsed customers to return. Waters Philippines is an example of level 2 market-driving strategies where there is a major change in the business system more than the value proposition. (Disclaimer: Waters Philippines is owned by the author.) It markets Waters Bio Mineral Pot, a premium home water purifier—mineralizer—alkaline maker that is leader in its segment. Waters used to be sold in appliance and other retail stores on cash basis in the late ’80s and early ’90s; however, its growth was constrained with its inability to explain the product features and benefits of the high end products in stores. This led to stores requiring them to go on promotional sale, with the additional problem of the fixed cost of hiring its own promo girls and the automatic termination of these promo girls in five months just when their competency is peaking. Waters then decided to create its own independent direct sales force who were able to go direct to the customers (instead of waiting for them to go to the retail stores) to promote the product, backed with installment plans that nearly matches what consumers typically pay monthly for water delivered by their water refill stations. The installment plans allowed more affordability for the consumers while enhancing the business opportunity for its sales network. Today, Waters Philippines is expanding to Indonesia to tap into a bigger combined market. Inquirer Libre is an example of level 3 market-driving strategy, which saw a major change in value proposition coupled with a major change in business system. As the leading broadsheet in the Philippines, Inquirer wanted to broaden its readership base to include younger consumers, so in November  2001, it launched Inquirer Libre. The Inquirer’s mother brand gave the new tabloid-size newspaper immediate credibility among its train riders. Libre (meaning â€Å"free† in English) is a complimentary morning daily that is heavy in entertainment and with a lot of light, human interest articles designed to be read in 15 minutes. Instead of selling the newspaper, it gave away Libre for free. Instead of tapping newspaper dealers, it went straight to consumers by way of self-service pick-up stations, hence, avoiding traditional trade margins and sales returns (after all, it’s a free paper). Instead of showing half naked women targeting blue-collar workers, it decided to be a wholesome paper targeting the young white-collar workers. Hence, instead of the usual readers in their 30s to 40s, Libre readers are mostly in their 20s not known to be newspaper buyers. This is an example of category point-of-entry marketing that will eventually turn some of the current Libre readers to broadsheet readers in the future. As can be seen from above, the three levels of market-driving strategy help companies think strategically, looking beyond the value proposition to include their value chain—instead of plainly being better, it strives to innovate by being different. C. Many tabloids in the country have been operating for a long time on a formula of scandalous attention-grabbing headlines and photos of sexy girls on the front page. One tabloid, Inquirer Libre, decided to take a different route. Using market-driving strategies,Inquirer Libre presented its product differently while targeting a new market. As explained by marketing guru Josiah Go of Mansmith and Fielders, Inc., market-driving strategies, the latest buzzword in market orientation, call for a breaking of the rules and changing the value proposition or business system or both to grow profit and demand from new and marginal customers. (See previous post here.) Inquirer Libre is a morning tabloid featuring short news and feature articles that can be read in 15 minutes. However, Go points out that unlike the other tabloids, it is given for free at MRT stations. There are no photos of naked women; the total package is wholesome. The target market consists of office people in their 20s and 30s on their way to work. â€Å"Instead of tapping the  traditional newspaper dealers, Libre’s new channel is in the various train stations. This means no dealer trade margin and no sales returns,† says Go. Inquirer Libre also has a classified ads page that runs every Thursday, a new reason for the target market to read it. As a result of the market-driving strategies (give it out for free, go wholesome, go direct to the market at train stations, offer classifieds), Inquirer Libre is the leading free tabloid in Metro Manila and hit its ROI fast. Are you looking for a way to survive the cut-throat competition? Market-driving strategies may be the answer. A TOTAL of three—that was the number of enrollees R. A. Gapuz Review Center (RAGRC) had back in 1994 when they opened, offering review classes for those taking government board exams. But this did not deter founder Ray Gapuz from persevering in his then newly established business. Nowadays, their number of enrollees are in the thousands, so much so, that review and coaching sessions have to be scheduled in hotel ballrooms, mall cinemas and even big events places such as the Philippine International Convention Center and Araneta Coliseum. And get this—review classes are also beamed via satellite to other venues in the country. Of course, online review courses are also offered. Today RAGRC is the market leader among nursing review centers, getting the lion’s share of 40 percent of the market among 55 documented review centers, according to its website. Just how did RAGRC succeed? Josiah Go, marketing guru and chairman of Mansmith and Fielders, Inc., points to market-driving strategies applied by the company. â€Å"Market-driving strategies define how a firm will embrace innovative changes in the industry logic and business system to grow its profit and industry’s demand from marginal and non-customers,† says Go. To do this, innovations may be implemented in the value proposition (what the company may offer customers), the business system, or both. Here are steps RAGRC took to succeed: 1. Give a new value proposition by: – Offering an intensive 10-day review course at 8 hours a day aside from the traditional 6-month review course at 3 times a week. The shorter review course allows nursing graduates to find work while providing RAGRC faster turnaround. – Holding review classes in hotels and malls instead of cramped classrooms. – Presenting the curriculum according to diseases regardless of age to remove any duplication encountered when doing  it by specialization. This is well appreciated by the reviewees. 2. Innovate the business system by: – Going high tech and livening up review classes by holding it game show style and offering stimulating card games as reinforcement. This prevents boredom from setting in. Market-driving strategies are all about changing the rules of the game in order to attract new demand. They may just be what your company needs to be profitable and stay profitable. Josiah Go is conducting a seminar dubbed â€Å"Market-Driving Strategies: Executive Workout† on June 25-26 in Makati City and on July 14-15 in Cebu City. E-mail for details.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Some Tips Of Writing Good Death Penalty Essays

Some Tips Of Writing Good Death Penalty Essays A Complete Guide to Writing a Winning Death Penalty Essay Many students face the challenge of coming up with a good death penalty essay. This should not be the case since its only the topic that makes the work sound hard to tackle. My guide will enable you as a writer to come up with an appealing essay. I will provide diverse steps that will guide your essay and offer recommendations to ensure your work is professionally written, and, in the long run, attain a desirable grade. The first step towards writing a death penalty essay is to understand its meaning. According to the dictionary definition, death penalty refers to punishment by death for a crime that accords such a comprehensive punishment. Another way you can refer to the death penalty is capital punishment. Types of Death Penalty Essays To successfully write this type of paper, you should first understand what type of essay you will be tackling. For aspects such as analysis and examination of elements related to the death penalty, an analytical essay will be more appropriate. If you embark on an effort to convince a reader about an opinion you believe and stand with, a persuasive essay will be more prudent. For aspects such as evaluation or investigating the death penalty, you should apply an expository essay. An argumentative essay would be appropriate if you are to provide an argument about the death penalty, which you want to convince the reader that its more factual, truthful, and firm than any other stated argument within the same theme and context. Topics Relating to the Death Penalty Essay After deciding on the essay type to apply in writing the death penalty essay, the next step requires you to craft an interesting topic and thesis statement. Remember that the type of essay you will write will be a determination of your thesis statement (and main idea). Here are some relevant topics that you can use in writing a death penalty essay. The effectiveness of the death penalty in reducing crime rates The various Systems of the death penalty, and the order of effectiveness. How the death penalty provides a warning to criminals willing to commit murder. Is the death penalty fairly or unfairly applied? Thesis Statements on the Death Penalty Essay A thesis statement offers an outline of issues to be discussed on your death penalty essay for the readers to have a hint of what to expect as they go through your essay. Here are examples of thesis statements relating to a death penalty essay. Only countries with inhumane legal systems still use capital punishment which is outdated and primitive. Capital punishment only applies to criminals who have committed ghastly crimes. Countries that do not endorse this system are only pampering their criminals. The death penalty is a sure way of restraining people from committing horrific crimes The death penalty is not effective enough to restrain people from committing murder. There is no fair way of administering the death penalty and thus should be eliminated. The death penalty is effective enough to assure people that justice is being served. Reliable Sources for Death Penalty Essays After you have come up with the type of essay, main topic, and your thesis statement, you are required to find reliable sources that can either support or argue against your statement. It should not be hard to find such sources as they are available in different books, articles, or magazines that you can access online or in a library. It is a requirement to use sources that have been published within the last 3 years because any other source outside this time bracket will be too outdated to support your statement. Examples of sources for a death penalty essay include: An article on the death penalty from Wikipedia Be mindful that some education centers restrict the type of sources you can use, number of online sources that can be used, or even the colossal amount of sources that can be used in your essay. Some time back, Wikipedia was discouraged as a source of information when writing an essay. This is because professors realized that the content was not well controlled, as anyone could post any topic even without the relevant expertise. This prompted the editorial team of Wikipedia to step up and gain control of the content posted on their website. The information added to a particular article should be correctly cited from a credible source. This has recently made colleges withdraw the restrictions, and the source can now be utilized. An article on the death penalty from Google Scholar Google scholar is another reliable source for information regarding the death penalty essay. As a search engine, it offers a wide array of quality resources relating to all debatable issues; it provides an option of accessing resources, from scholarly articles, magazines, to books. Several of the books and articles are accessible for free; others only offer specified pages, as others require payment to access them. Additionally, you can access citations for the books and articles easily. An article on the death penalty from Encyclopedia Britannica As a highly recognized source, the Encyclopedia Britannica has improved from a 5.25 disc to a CD-ROM and DVD. Currently, you can access its online website and find tons of resources relating to your work. Citing Death Penalty Sources To achieve this, you must research and acquire recently written sources on the death penalty. Additionally, you should have a good understanding and knowledge relating to the citation of sources within your essay, and filling up a wells of citation methods include MLA – Modern Language Association, APA – American Psychology Association, or the Chicago, Turabian Style. Here are examples of sample works with sources used within the essay on death penalty along with the required entry for the bibliography. MLA Style: With a review of various denominations, each has its own view about the death penalty. For instance, approximately 69% of the Protestants support the death penalty. Moreover, 53% of the people with no specific religious association also support the death penalty (Son). Source format for bibliography or work cited: Son, M. The support and praise the death penalty receive from the American people. Legal Report, 201418(6), 67-85. Doi: 10.12940/jfb.2014.18.6.67 APA Style: Criticisms of executions under the confinements of capital punishment to administer justice face consequences of it being applied, when the defense rests its case on retribution. (Leotard, 2017) Source format for bibliography or work cited: Leotard Jean-Franà §ois, (2017) â€Å"Review of the death penalty as it is in America today.† Manchester University Press, pp. 23-49. Death Penalty Structure On this area, you are required to write an overview of that included the definition of the death penalty, how it is applied in law, and how many executions have been done in each state. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Death Penalty It is important to understand the pros and cons of the death penalty, as it will help you argue for, or against the subject. Through this, you will be able to provide valid points with relevance to your chosen topic. Also, you should narrate the reason for your opinion based on your moral gauge concerning such issues, or financial and logistical aspects associated with capital punishment. Global Perspective on the Death Penalty The death penalty stretches its point of view across every country, with no single standard perspective carried out by all the countries. Most western countries have eliminated capital punishment, with others taking necessary steps to achieve this. For instance, many states using the death penalty have limited its application to specific scopes. This act of law can not punish Children, the mentally ill, and the mentally disabled. Below are several countries and their status on the death penalty. The death penalty in America While reviewing the actions related to the death penalty in America, highlight its historical perspective, socio-political arguments for and against capital punishment, and the current stance of America on the death penalty. The death penalty in India When you examine capital punishment in India, be sure to highlight aspects such as the historical outlook, socio-political arguments for and against the penalty and India’s current stance on this issue. The death penalty in Australia While trying to gain information about capital punishment application in Australia, examine the issue from an ancient viewpoint, socio-political opinions that are for, and those against the death penalty, and their status as per now on the same issue. The death penalty in South Africa Similarly, you should examine this issue in South Africa accordingly, utilizing dynamics such as historical perspective, socio-political arguments against or for the death penalty, and the current standpoint of South Africa on capital punishment. Historical Outlook on the Death Penalty As you give a historical perspective about capital punishment for a specific country, apply issues that concern the social, legal, religious and political perspectives. The death penalty evolution can be traced from the fatal corporal punishment which the public would be physically involved in administering the punishment, to provoke fear to those with the intentions of committing offenses with a magnitude high enough to be awarded such a punishment. Social Judgment on the Death Penalty When you are required to give your opinion concerning this type of essay, most people believe you are supposed to advocate for, or against the death penalty. This way of thinking is influenced by the moral obligation and orientation we have on human life. However, the moral balance as to whether capital punishment is wrong or right is not yet clear. However, different sources argue their viewpoint using justifiable factual data, and you can use them to gain enough information that will help you weigh in your stance about it. Pros of the Death Penalty Sources that provide information on the benefits of capital punishment examine rates of repetition of an offense, the costs to be incurred if incarcerated, and the immediate execution of the offender. Most of the sources argue in line with financial and logistical aspects; thus you can utilize such information to come up with your own argument that relates to your perspective. Shortcomings of the Death Penalty You can find such information in resources that offer anti-death standpoints. They cover aspects such as wrongful executions, the cost estimate of a single execution, the lack of a deterrent effect even after the penalty has been applied several times, and the religious and moral orientation that argue against the death penalty. How effective is the Death Penalty? While arguing about this dynamic, first define the judicial system goals in administering punishments to offenders. Criminal punishments focus its impact on a specific defendant while serving society with related functions. These functions may be retribution, punishment, and deterrence. How well or bad the death penalty fulfills these three functions will determine how effective capital punishment is. Legalizing the Death Penalty Even though it is considered an effective form of punishment, its legalization or use should focus on consideration of questions other than its effectiveness. Your argument about this aspect should be technical or offer personal reasons that support or opposes the death penalty. After achieving this relevant conclusion can be drawn whether it is right to legalize or reject incorporation of the death penalty into the law. Death Penalty on Teenagers While discussing the issue of application of the death penalty on teenagers, consider the stance of different states on this issue. Most jurisdictions bar the application of this law on teenagers and young adults, while others grant it in relation to the degree of their offense. Studies do suggest that the teenage mind has not matured enough to fully comprehend the degree of the harm their actions cause to the general public or an individual. This begs for a debate on the legality and appropriateness of such a law towards people of such age. In your essay, you should base your argument on such dynamics to come up with a first-class death penalty essay. Death Penalty Essay Examples To gain perspective on how to write a competent death penalty essay, going through another student’s essay or a professionally written essay would prove to be of advantage. Sample essays will help you outline quality topics, thesis statements, arguments and correctly cite resources related to your topic. Utilize online resources to gain a sample death penalty essay that you can go through to help you come up with your original work. A point to remember: While writing a death penalty essay, there are various types of essays that can apply to this topic of discussion. The topic you choose should follow its specified outline template to ensure the work has structure and logic. The topic you choose has to address various aspects that this practice entails, and the arguments you put across should highlight a high level of authenticity, and backed up with reliable information to make it credible.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

The Colossal Heads of the Olmec

The Colossal Heads of the Olmec The Olmec civilization, which thrived along Mexicos Gulf Coast from about 1200 to 400 B.C., was the first major Mesoamerican culture. The Olmec were extremely talented artists, and their most lasting artistic contribution is without a doubt the enormous sculpted heads they created. These sculptures have been found at a handful of archaeological sites, including La Venta and San Lorenzo. Originally thought to depict gods or ballplayers, most archaeologists now say they believe they are likenesses of long-dead Olmec rulers. The Olmec Civilization The Olmec culture developed cities defined as population centers with political and cultural significance and influence as early as 1200 B.C. They were talented traders and artists, and their influence is quite clearly seen in later cultures like the Aztec and the Maya. Their sphere of influence was along Mexicos Gulf Coast particularly in the present-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco and major Olmec cities included San Lorenzo, La Venta, and Tres Zapotes. By 400 B.C. or so their civilization had gone into steep decline and had all but disappeared. The Olmec Colossal Heads The Olmecs colossal sculpted heads show the head and face of a helmeted man with distinctly indigenous features. Several of the heads are taller than an average adult human male. The largest colossal head was discovered at La Cobata. It stands about 10 feet tall and weighs an estimated 40 tons. The heads are generally flattened at the back and not carved all the way around they are meant to be viewed from the front and sides. Some traces of plaster and pigments on one of the San Lorenzo heads indicate that they may have once been painted. Seventeen Olmec colossal heads have been found: 10 at San Lorenzo, four at La Venta, two at Tres Zapotes and one at La Cobata. Creating the Colossal Heads The creation of these heads was a significant undertaking. The basalt boulders and blocks used to carve the heads were located as much as 50 miles away. Archaeologists suggest a laborious process of slowly moving the stones, using a   combination of raw manpower, sledges and, when possible, rafts on rivers. This process was so difficult that there are several examples of pieces being carved from earlier works; two of the San Lorenzo heads were carved out of an earlier throne. Once the stones reached a workshop, they were carved using only crude tools such as stone hammers. The Olmec did not have metal tools, which makes the sculptures all the more remarkable. Once the heads were ready, they were moved into position, although it is possible that they were occasionally moved around to create scenes along with other Olmec sculptures. Meaning The exact meaning of the colossal heads has been lost to time, but over the years there have been several theories. Their sheer size and majesty immediately suggest that they represent gods, but this theory has been discounted because in general, Mesoamerican gods are depicted as more gruesome than humans, and the faces are obviously human. The helmet/headdress worn by each of the heads suggests ballplayers, but most archaeologists today say they think they represented rulers. Part of the evidence for this is the fact that each of the faces has a distinct look and personality, suggesting individuals of great power and importance. If the heads had any religious significance to the Olmec, it has been lost to time, although many modern researchers say they think that the ruling class might have claimed a link to their gods. Dating It is almost impossible to pinpoint the exact dates when the colossal heads were made. The San Lorenzo heads were almost certainly all completed before 900 B.C. because the city went into steep decline at that time. Others are even more difficult to date; the one at La Cobata might be unfinished, and the ones at Tres Zapotes were removed from their original locations before their historical context could be documented. Importance The Olmec left behind many stone carvings that include reliefs, thrones, and statues. There is also a handful of surviving wooden busts and some cave paintings in nearby mountains. Nevertheless, the most striking examples of Olmec art are the colossal heads. The Olmec colossal heads are important historically and culturally to modern Mexicans. The heads have taught researchers much about the culture of the ancient Olmec. Their greatest value today, however, is probably artistic. The sculptures are truly amazing and inspirational and a popular attraction at the museums where they are housed. Most of them are in regional museums close to where they were found, while two are in Mexico City. Their beauty is such that several replicas have been made and can be seen around the world.