Monday, January 27, 2020
Factors Influencing Buyer Behaviour in Events Event Stakeholder Behaviour Contents (Jump to) Introduction The Context Stakeholder Behaviour Conclusion Bibliography Introduction Wilson (2000) stated that he believes the factors determining buyer behaviour is a proposition that is extremely difficult in that the processes are both complex as well as difficult to understand as a result of the many external influences at work acting upon and affecting the decisions. The purpose of buyer behavioral models is to aid marketers in mapping out the factors and influences that could affect the outcome, and then weighing those factors to assist in the decisions that will result in their favor. Identifying the buying behaviour patterns of both the attendee and the sponsor in the sports sector of the events industry entails considering that such is taking place within a semi controlled environment which in effect aids the sponsor as there are less outside competing influences vying for the attendees attention even though the atmosphere is charged with intense mental and other stimuli. The relationship involved in the setting indicated, sports sector of the events industry, means that the sponsor represents the marketer seeking to influence the outcome with reference to the attendee, to have him or her try, purchase, or consider their offering. In this context, the sponsor is seeking multiple outcomes representing a past, now and future connotation in that the preceding represent either changing an attendees preconceived notions or ideas of his offering, this represents past influences, having the attendee purchase or try the product within the setting at the event, and influ encing the attendee to re-consider their ideas on his offering that could result in trial, consideration, inquiry, trial or purchase after leaving the event. These preceding multiple objectives are valid approaches in that a singular approach, seeking Ã¢â¬ËnowÃ¢â¬â¢ results, overlooks and ignores the other equally important factors that are present in any gathering of distinctly different individuals of varied age groups, experiences, backgrounds and demographics. The opinions expressed by Engel et al (1968) suggest that an advertiser or sponsor should be mindful not to overstate nor understand the attributes, features or other aspects of their offering as this might result in a negative perception when real world circumstances such as actual usage or trail occur. Dubois (2000) reminds us that theorists such as Sigmund Freud have attempted to analyze what might influence individuals studying the psyche as well as subconscious motivations as their means of doing so. The implications of planning for such an event means that sponsors must consider a number of differing and unique aspects in consideration of the circumstantial context in the planning of marketing activities. The Context Buyer behaviour differs from consumer behaviour in that the former is the domain of business and marketing professionals seeking to understand this phenomenon (Schiffman et al, 2000). The Sheth et al (1969) model, which consists of multi variables, attempts to inculcate knowledge concerning a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s purchase along with their behaviour, through the utilization of a transformation process. In this model it shows the stages concerning influences that affect the behaviour process (Sheth et al, 1969): The Ã¢â¬ËSignificativeÃ¢â¬â¢ Stage The Ã¢â¬ËSymbolicÃ¢â¬â¢ Stage, and The Ã¢â¬ËSocialÃ¢â¬â¢ Stage Contained within the preceding stages Ã¢â¬Ëreference groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ are mentioned, which Bearden et al (1982) describe as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ a person or group of people that significantly influencesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ the behaviour of an individual. The three types of reference groups described by Bearden et al (1982) are: Information Influences: This type of group seeks out the information by which to make a decision that is reliable. Utilitarian Influences: This group seeks to want to appear like others within the group to either avoid punishments and/or to receive certain benefits. Value-expressive Influences: In this reference group the influenced party accepts the positions and or perceptions of others as a result of the need to belong. The preceding contextual ramifications are factors which need to be considered by sponsors in their more active role in the process as they represent influences upon the attendee. It should be noted that the Sheth et al (1969) model does not predict purchase behaviour; it simply lays out the influences that might affect behaviour that can then be utilized as a frame of reference. The model explains how influence and inputs are evaluated as well as utilized by the buyer as a result of perceptual and learning constructs (Sheth et al, 1969), and then goes on to identify the eventual outcomes and outputs of the process. Marketers utilize buyer behaviour, models, to aid them in arriving at assumptions. The preceding helps them to analyze, understand, evaluate, criticize and monitor a specific market and or product. Chisnal (1994) indicates that there are the following uses for models: That they aid in mapping out the various characteristics that might affect the eventual purchase of an offering in a manner that is more simplified. And that they result in marketing strategies that are more effective as they are developed as a result of outcomes that are likely as predicted from the model. Additionally, Chisnall (1994) indicates that a well-structured and effective model will be: Relevant: In that the model(s) must be applicable to marketing situations that are real. Comprehensible In this instance the models need to be both well constructed as well as clear. Valid This type of model is verifiable in terms of occurrences in the real world. The utilization of multi-variable models refer to the attendee, sponsor aspects as being examined herein as the factors, circumstances and influences acting within and without are more complex as well as include multiple relationships and aspects from behavioral sciences. Said models are more representative concerning the actual characteristics regarding buyer behaviour, however they are not easily analyzed. Inherent in this equation is the consideration of temporal constraints. The situation that considers the buyer behaviour in the sports sector of the events industry that is time dependent. Said events have a time period correlation which represents the length said event shall take place. Fraisse (1963) pointed out that individuals are usually influenced by conditions of situation in making judgments about time. The preceding is important in helping to mold buyer behavior in that studies conducted regarding the influence of varied mood states has shown that it has a factor in the way they estimate the duration of an event as well as their temporal orientation (Hornik, 1981). The further implications of the foregoing presents the opportunity for sponsors to introduce an additional element into the equation to aid in increasing the net effect of their efforts, as well as the other input variables. As all of these factors have differing effects with respect to their input on buyer behavi or, common sense dictates that the utilization of as many non-conflicting elements as possible will thus skew the potential outcome more in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s favor. Thus, understanding the need to induce a positive and uplifting mood as a factor in buyer behaviour inducement represents an opportunity to increase the net effect of the message, action, influence or course one desires or seeks to obtain as a result. HornikÃ¢â¬â¢s (1981) studies suggested that individuals in a positive mood will more than likely be disposed to be future oriented, whereas individuals in a negative mood will have an orientation more geared to the present, or now. This explains the utilization of bright lights, colors, theme music and a festive atmosphere as important variables. The preceding is the general overall mood present in events conducted in the sports sector as they are seen or perceived as recreational or entertaining, thus striking or establishing a pre-conceived mood expectation that needs to be amplified or at least rise to those expectations in order to maintain the positive future orientation factor. The second time-based research that enters into consideration is called Ã¢â¬Ëintertemporal choice.Ã¢â¬â¢ (HornikÃ¢â¬â¢s, 1984) Hornik (1984) continued his work on temporal studies in another work in this area brought out the fact that in such, intertemoral choice, decisions concerning buying behaviour entail the consideration of costs and benefits that are spread over time. Utilization of presentation, message delivery and the non-complexity of information are important variables to be attended to as part of the planning of marketing activities. Stakeholder Behaviour With the conditional boundaries being understood as occurring in the sports sector of the events industry, the analysis contains a number of constraints which can be adjusted to work in favor of the sponsor, but which work upon the attendee. The proper event, based upon its demographic and other component factors, represents an opportunity for a particular business or corporation to have a forum to reach segments of their demographic profile on a more personal and controlled basis. The event entails a participatory structure whereby the attendee either elects to make an appearance, or is expected to do so by his peers, or other considerations. As the first option is the overwhelming choice, due to the voluntary nature, said attendees are more than likely to be in an anticipatory mode with the expectation of an enjoyable time. With this as the foundational mood sponsors should be more disposed to buying into the circumstances as a platform to reach attendees, who conversely are likely to be in a more receptive mood to influences as a result of the festive occasion, in general. Chisnall (1994) refers to the foregoing, on the part of the attendee, as the importance of social considerations in consumer behaviour. Palmer (1998) as well as Chisnall (1994) refer to the importance of establishing and building customer loyalty as variables in the buying process. The foregoing applicability with respect to sponsors in event marketing is a factor of the manner in which the event is conducted, organized and the interest factor inherent within the event and sporting connection. The loyalty of the attendee can be enhanced by his perception that the sponsor or advertiser support the activity, thus tend to be viewed positively. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s general public is aware of corporate participation and support as a result of p ronouncements in the media, as well as comparison with other activities. This awareness represents the opportunity to establish a foundation of loyalty perception that is beneficial. The importance of the social setting is a further positive aspect which influences and impacts upon buyer behaviour, as well as the group associations (Rice, 1997). The relatively Ã¢â¬ËcaptiveÃ¢â¬â¢ nature of event marketing has its appeal in reaching a defined number of individuals within a context and setting that is conductive to buying behavior as well as one which the marketer has considerable control, and influence, relative to the other participants. Sherif et al (1961) refer to the preceding as involvement as described below: High involvement products set up the parameters for a positive balance in the relationship between the performance outcome and the expectation level(s) Low Involvement products set up or result in a negative relationship correlation between performance and expectations. The preceding implication is that active participation and a level of balanced and believable performance sets the foundation for trust and thus a positive relationship. There is effort on the part of the sponsor to be there through selling means, thus setting up an important component of buyer recognition, and thus influence. Passive advertising or promotional forms entail magazine or print utilizations and thus are not participatory. The distinction is that a specific occurrence, or event, entails the participation of active as well as passive individuals, with the advantage going to the active participants influencing the passive. The attendees represent the passive element and thus the climate for buyer behavior is enhanced as it brings together both elements under conditions that foster more intense involvement and interaction. Conclusion Buying behaviour is a condition that can either be amplified or left at its relative levels based upon the everyday forces, influences and circumstances of and behavioral group. This includes attendees as well as sponsors. The common glue that binds the aforementioned is the relationship between the two parties. They represent passive and active modes, and these forces are consistently present as a condition of life. We are either being influenced, or influencing. The levels and amount of individuals thus affected, is a determinant of the degree of organization as well as purpose and offering. Thus, underwriting events within the sporting sector represents an optimum opportunity to be associated with a captive audience that is coming together for a festive occasion, be this a baseball, football, soccer or basketball game or other competitive endeavor. Such an occasion represents a situation whereby a sponsorÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in such an event is heightened as a result of it providing more buying behavioral factors to be brought to bear. This thus creates buying behavior difference on the part of the attendee. Increased buyer behavioral patterns are also present on the attendee side as a result of the same elemental input factors that influence such an event, as described by (Sheth et al, 1969), Bearden et al (1982), and Chisnal (1994) in their mention of Ã¢â¬Ësignificance, symbolic and social stagesÃ¢â¬ , along with influences of an Ã¢â¬Ë informational, utilitarian or value-expressive nature, and the mapping out the Ã¢â¬Ëcharacteristics useful in developing marketing strategiesÃ¢â¬â¢, respectively. Bibliography Bearden, W., Etzel, M. J. 1982. Reference Group Influence on Product and Brand Purchase Decisions. Vol. 14, Issue 9, p-184, 09/1982. Journal of Consumer Research Chisnall. Peter. 1994. Consumer Behaviour. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, New York. ISBN: 0077076168 Dubois, B. 2000. Understanding the Consumer: A European Perspective. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, the United States. ISBN: 0136163688 Engle, J.F., Kollat, D.T., Blackwell, R.D. 1968. Consumer Behavior. Holt, Rinehart Winston, New York, New York, United States Hornik, Jacob. 1984. Subjective vs. Objective Time Measures: A Note on the Perception of Time in Consumer Behavior. 06/1984, Vol. 11, pp 615-618. Journal of Consumer Research Hornik, Jacob. 1981. Time Cue and Time Perception Effect on Response to Mail Surveys. 05, 1981, Vol. 18, pp 243-249. Journal of Marketing Research Palmer, Adrian. 1998. Principles of Services Marketing. McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, United States. ISBN: 0077097483 Rice, Chris. 1997. Understanding Customers. Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN: 0750623225 Schiffman, L., Kanuk, L. 2000. Consumer Behavior. Prentice Hall, London, The United Kingdom Sheth, J.N., Howard, J.A.. 1069. The Theory of Buyer Behavior. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, United States Sherif, M., Hovland, C. 1961. Social Judgment: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Communication and Attitude Change. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn. United States Wilson, D.F. 2000. Why divide consumer and organizational buyer behaviour?. Vol. 34, Issue 7, pp 780-796. European Journal of Marketing
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Nursing is a unique profession that is vital worldwide. I moved to Australia for a better life and career after having worked as a Registered Nurse in overseas for six years. I had completed studying Diploma of Nursing for three years which included theory and hospital trained nursing. To be registered, as a nurse in Australia Nurses and Midwives Board requires assessing the qualifications of international nurses to ensure that nurses are substantially equivalent to Board approved Australian Nursing qualification. Being supported by my husband and relatives, motivated me to commence my University study and to upgrade my qualification.I would like to make a positive difference in peoples' lives. I have always desired a career that involved personal contact and that's what nursing gives me. It is an opportunity for me to use caring in a holistic manner. As a university student, lots of self-study is required. One challenge will be assignment and a presentation, especially as English is my second language. One of the major challenges during my university study will be the financial problem, such as tuition fees, expenses and textbooks. A further challenge may be having several assignments and readings being due close to one another.One of the economic problems is time management as a university student. Time management involves doing the right thing at the right time. Managing time effortlessly can make the difference between a successful student and one who Is defeated by stress. So, time management and balance is significant within my life. To Improve on time management, creating a timetable, study plan will keep me on track In managing my studies. The overall workload of my course material is least likely to be under my control however, my time management and economic management are factors that I can directly Influence.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Organizations are continuously seeking to improve quality in which there is more focus on their customer service and relations. In most organizations the customer service skills contribute to the success of the organization. Individuals with good people skills are the foundation to excellent customer service. The skills associated with good customer service are problem solving, team work, leadership selection is not an effective way to improve productivity in situations where only a few applicants compete for a large number of openings, or a business involves only easily learned tasks (Brown, 1996).Employees have many options to improving their performance In the event an organization encounters these situations, selection techniques would not be used but training would be used. In any organization, when employees have interactions with customers it represents the organization. The perception held by the customers experience will influence how they will perceive the organization and its products. When determining the training needs of organizations employees and filling positions are important factors in the HR management processes.Having the right number of people with the right training in the right jobs to meet its sales goals for the new product is essential in a viable organization (Kusluvan, 2003). A job analysis needs to be completed to know the skills needed for each position. The job description will lay out the skills and abilities of an individual needed to fill a job will come from the job analysis. The needs assessment role is to give answers to such commonly asked questions such as the when, who, and why.Conducting needs assessment protects the assets of an organization and facilitates conservation and proper utilization of resources set aside for training. A needs assessment helps to know whether training is the ideal solution to a performance deficiency (Barbazette, 2006). If training does not help resolve a deficiency in skills and knowledge, t here would be no need for the training. Organizations should know the reason training to avoid wasting resources in training materials. Needs Assessment PurposeAltschuld and White (2010) point out training needs assessment serves several multiple purposes only if proper implementation takes place. The needs of the organization is the most important when it comes to the training offered. Serving the business needs with training adds value only when it isÃ needed. Lastly, it will help correct the issues that the clients may present. The clients know what they want but do not know the way to correct issues concerning human performance. A needs assessment can communicate distinctive information given by the client, also give other reason on the clients original feeling.The other reason for the assessment is to match up with the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance needs ultimately meeting the needs of the organization. A major role of the assessment is to gather the information that will bac k the design of the training, which best fits the needs of the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s job description. Also, it results in recommendations regarding non-training issues that are affecting the achievement of the desired organization and employee performance goals (Barbazette, 2006). It is equally as important for the individual assessor to know the issues and give suggestions as to how these issues could be addressed. In addition, training needs assessment helps protect the continuance of the training functions in an organization.During hard times the risk will not be so high if the training provided adds value to the organization. In the process of a needs assessment one should consider the needs of the business, employee performance, and individual learning. The evaluation methods consist of different factors such as organization needs, learner reaction, job performances and learning. The goal in training is to be able to identify positive changes in each of the four needs assessment pr e-measures when post-measured during evaluation (Lenan & Bailey, 2006). The evaluation measurement can cause the organization to begin a new needs assessment. A needs assessment uncovers the existing performance deficiencies. The assessment will address the following questions: Need of training?Organizations need to compare the deficiency to the business needs and confirm that the positive outcome of training employees outweighs the problems inherent in performance deficiency (Tobey, 2005). In order to answer this question, one will have to complete an alternative analysis along with a feasibility analysis. Individual training?Individuals that can provide a solution to the deficiency should be involved in the training. The targeted population should be analyzed to acquire the knowledge of their deficiency. The analysis will also help design theÃ training program needed and that would be of interest. Unstable Performance ResolvedThe best way to solve performance issues is by offeri ng training or if training is not feasible offer was to solve the issues. A performance analysis will identify the deficiency of skills; this can be solved by training. Best Performance Ways?To achieve the best results there is a better way to accomplish the task. Job performance standards such as Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) should be set by the organization (Tobey, 1987). Government regulations should also be considered when completing the task in a required manner. Conduct task analysis to identify the best way to perform. Training Timing?Organizations have to consider the best time to complete the training due to the holiday schedules and business cycles will impact the employee attendance.Improvement of the organizations performance is done through the performance and commitment of the employees as well as training. Training will aid employees in their current roles and help develop them for possible future added responsibilities. Some of the purposes of training are to update employee skills, preparation for promotion, and success in management while satisfying the employee needs. Some organizations provide apprentice training.The implementation of a training program being successful depends on more than the organizations ability to identify the needs. The success depends on the ability to obtain information to design a training program to fit the need. Some experts think that the design of the training programs should be focused on objectives of the instructional trainingÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness of employees, instructorÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics and principles of learning. There are many methods of training employees, these methods consist of presentations, role play, on the job training, case study, online web base seminars and simulations.The method of training chosen is online web- based training because it is very convenient to use. If ones company is notÃ already using it, then there should be plans to implement online training as a part of th e overall plan for education. Web-based training has several advantages. Ã¢â¬ ¢Provides employees access to training materials twenty four hours a day so, they can learn and complete on their own schedule Ã¢â¬ ¢Management can track employees progressÃ¢â¬ ¢Expenses are cut due to not having to provide instructors, venue or materials Ã¢â¬ ¢It enables staff members from various geographical settings to take the training at their convenience without the time or expense of traveling. Since the introduction of the internet, organizations now have virtual online training. This is a way that the company can offer training on various subjects in an online environment. Some organizations offer certificate programs for the completion of the courses employees complete. Ways to motivate employeesThe most indisputable way to motivate employees into attending a training session is to make it a requirement to attend training on scheduled work hours. There are ways to motivate employees that are not interested in attending training sessions are as follows (Tobey, 2005; Rossett, 1987).Provide incentivesThe most common incentives for employees to attend training will include opportunities for promotion, college credits, certificates and monetary compensation. Relate the training to an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s immediate jobEmployees are more willing to attend training when the material covered will be directly related to their immediate job performance. Employees would be more motivated to attend a training session on a computer program that the organization will be using in two months than a training session on Ã¢â¬Å"Future Trends on Office AutomationÃ¢â¬ (Rosset, 1987). Therefore, training should be provided before the implementation of the product instead of with the thought of we may use it. Make the training interestingEmployees are more interested and willing to go to training if the session are interesting and they gain useful information associated with their position. I ncrease employee buy-in in the trainingIf the employee has a say in the information covered and the type of training given they will be more likely to attend these sessions. Provide the food.The organization provides lunch during the training session for the employees as the presentation is carried out. This would be the highest possibility that the employees would attend this training. Reduce the stress of attending the trainingOften times, employees are willing to attend training but their schedule constraints keep them from taking the time away from their schedules. The organization can assist employees with attending training by reducing their workload or giving assistance with workload. Customer feedback is significant to respond to customer needs and issues to ensure satisfaction of the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s products and services (Brown, 1996). Feedback in training is important in helping make improvements for future training sessions. Sample of survey used to collect feedback.1. O verall how would you rate the training class? ExcellentGoodFairPoor*2. Please rate the following aspects of the training classExcellentGoodFairPoorn/a Did your trainer actively ask questionsDid your trainer have a professional demeanorPlease rate the qualifications of the instructor3. Based on your experience at this training class, how likely are you to attend future training class with this instructor? Very likelySomewhat likelyNot likely4. What did you learn from the training?ExcellentGoodFairPoorn/a5. What do you think about the quality of training?ExcellentGoodFairPoorn/a6. Were the training materials enough?7.Suggest other methods of training8.What did you learn from the training?In conclusion, all organizations should place training employees on customer service at the top of their priorities. Customers will continue to come back when they receive good service and back service will drive customers away. Therefore all organizations need to continue to enhance the customer serv ice skills of their employees through customer service training.
Friday, January 3, 2020
A city filled with only clean walls might be attractive to some people, especially of those who are in the upper class group. To those that do not belong in the mentioned group, they desire to rebel against that kind of system - a system where money matters the most. This could explain why graffiti is popular with those who oppose gentrification. Graffiti serves as a form of art that gives those who are unheard of a voice in their community. Art can be defined depending on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation of it. However, according to the Merriam-Webster, art is Ã¢â¬Å"the conscious use of skill and creative imagination especially in the production of aesthetic objectsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"ArtÃ¢â¬ ). There are no specific requirements for something to be considered as art, but art should make a person feel some type of emotion. Graffiti makes people feel represented because it gives them a voice. Graffiti also makes the authority figures angry because of the way it is produced. Th erefore, graffiti should be recognized more as a respected form of art and not as vandalism because it represents a group of people due to the message and purpose that it has. Ã¢â¬Å"Graffiti as markings on public or private property, without permission, has a long historyÃ¢â¬ (Whitehead 26). Its illegality has always been a major aspect of its art for. It was found on the wall of ancient cities such as Pompeii, which includes Ã¢â¬Å"examples of everyday Latin, insults, magic, and love declarationsÃ¢â¬ (26). Graffiti started all the wayShow MoreRelatedGraffiti Is A Form Of Art1019 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages93 01 December 2016 Graffiti is Art Graffiti is a form of art well known in the street art. There are many forms of arts like drawing, painting, sculpture, or graffiti. Graffiti is an art used for the community to send messages as well as representing for community identity and pride through Graffiti artwork. 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